"Hole-in-the-Day" Chief of the Cubanys' / Crow Wing / Minnesota. Sioux Uprising.

"Hole-in-the-Day" Chief of the Cubanys' / Crow Wing / Minnesota.

[Minnesota]: [circa 1862].

Hand-colored photograph, mounted on card at a period date, manuscript caption (as above) below the image. 6-1/2 x 5-1/4 inches (image size). Waterstain to left side within the image, soiling and staining to the mount Item #220972

A rare image of the Ojibway chief Hole in the Day (The Younger) (1825-1868), chief of the Mississippi Band of the Ojibwe (Chippewa) of central Minnesota. During the Sioux Uprising of 1862, Hole-in-the-Day advocated joining forces with the Dakota and threatened to attack Fort Ripley. By late December 1862, US soldiers had taken captive more than a thousand Dakota, including women, children and elderly men in addition to warriors. After trials and sentencing by a military court, 38 Dakota were hanged in the largest one-day mass execution in American history.

Although the photographer of the present image has not been identified, a glass plate negative of the same image (in reverse) is located within the Edward Bromley Collection at the Minneapolis Public Library. Bromley arrived in Minnesota in 1867 and began collecting photographs and negatives of Minnesota. His first purchase of over 500 glass plate negatives was from Benjamin F. Upton. He also purchased 1600 negatives from William H. Illingworth’s gallery in St. Paul, as well as the negatives and plates of 30 other photographers (including Pepper, Jacoby, Rugg, and Harvey).

Given the timing of Hole-in-the-Day's assasination by a group of Ojibway in 1868 (later revealed to have been contracted by by a group of white and mixed-blood traders), it would seem likely that the present image is either by Upton, or perhaps by Joel E. Whitney, whose half-length portraits of Native Americans of the region are stylistically similar to the present image.

"The photographs of the 1862 Sioux Revolt are more than examples of early western photography; they are among the first photographs to document a conflict between Indians and white settlers in the West" (Heather A. Shannon, "Photographs of the 1862 Sioux Revolt: From National Sensation to Ethnographic Documentation" in The Princeton University Library Chronicle , Vol. 67, No. 2 (Winter 2006), pp. 290-313).

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